Author: Peter McLeod Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA ISBN: 9780198524274 Size: 12.12 MB Format: PDF, ePub, Docs View: 6504
Describes the principles of connectionist modelling, and its application in understanding how the brain produces speech, forms memories, recognizes faces, and how intellect develops and deteriorates after brain damage.
Author: David C. Plaut Publisher: Psychology Press ISBN: 9780863773365 Size: 31.81 MB Format: PDF, ePub View: 4315
Computational models offer tools for exploring the nature of human cognitive processes. In connectionist, neural network, or parallel distributed processing models, information processing takes the form of cooperative and competitive interactions among many simple, neuron-like processing units. These models provide new ways of thinking about the neural basis of cognitive processes, and how disorders of brain function lead to disorders of cognition. This monograph is an expanded version of a recent issue of the journal Cognitive Neuropsychology. It presents the most comprehensive existing "case study" of how the effects of damage in connectionist models can replicate the detailed and diverse patterns of cognitive impairments that can arise in humans as a result of brain damage. It begins with a review of the basic methodology of cognitive neuropsychology and of other attempts at modeling neuropsychological phenomena. It then focuses on a particular form of acquired reading disorder, "deep dyslexia," in which previously literate adults with brain damage exhibit a wide range of symptoms in pronouncing written words, the most striking of which is the production of semantic errors (e.g. reading RIVER as "ocean"). A series of simulations investigate the effects of damage in connectionist models that pronounce written words via their meaning. The work systematically explores each main aspect of the design of the models, identifying the basic computational properties that are responsible for the occurrence of deep dyslexia when the models are damaged. Although the investigation concerns a specific form of reading impairment, the computational principles that emerge as critical are very general ones: representation of concepts as distributed patterns of activity, encoding of knowledge in terms of weights on connections between units, interactivity between units to form stable attractors for familiar activity patterns, and greater richness of concrete vs. abstract semantics. The fact that damage to models embodying these principles and damage to the brain can produce strikingly similar behaviour supports the view that the human cognitive system operates according to similar principles.
Connectionist Models in Cognitive Psychology is a state-of-the-art review of neural network modelling in core areas of cognitive psychology including: memory and learning, language (written and spoken), cognitive development, cognitive control, attention and action. The chapters discuss neural network models in a clear and accessible style, with an emphasis on the relationship between the models and relevant experimental data drawn from experimental psychology, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience. These lucid high-level contributions will serve as introductory articles for postgraduates and researchers whilst being of great use to undergraduates with an interest in the area of connectionist modelling.
Author: James A. Reggia Publisher: World Scientific ISBN: 9810228791 Size: 72.33 MB Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi View: 3069
During the last few years there has been a rapidly increasing interest in neural modeling of brain and cognitive disorders. This multidisciplinary book presents a variety of such models in neurology, neuropsychology and psychiatry. A review of work in this area is given first. Computational models are then presented of memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease, functional brain reorganization following a stroke, patterns of neural activity in epilepsy, disruption of language processes in aphasia and acquired dyslexia, altered cognitive processes in schizophrenia and depression, and related disorders. This is the first book on this topic, with contributions from many of the leading researchers in this field.
This handbook includes an overview of those areas of cognition and language processing that are relevant to the field of communication disorders, and provides examples of theoretical approaches to problems and issues in communication disorders. The first section includes a collection of chapters that outline some of the basic considerations and areas of cognition and language that underlie communication processing; a second section explains and exemplifies some of the influential theories of psycholinguistic/cognitive processing; and the third section illustrates theoretical applications to clinical populations. There is coverage of theories that have been either seminal or controversial in the research of communication disorders. Given the increasing multi-cultural workload of many practitioners working with clinical populations, chapters relating to bilingual populations are also included. The volume book provides a single interdisciplinary source where researchers and students can access information on psycholinguistic and cognitive processing theories relevant to clinical populations. A range of theories, models, and perspectives are provided. The range of topics and issues illustrate the relevance of a dynamic interaction between theoretical and applied work, and retains the complexity of psycholinguistic and cognitive theory for readers (both researchers and graduate students) whose primary interest is the field of communication disorders.
Author: Frank Van Overwalle Publisher: Psychology Press ISBN: 1134956134 Size: 11.66 MB Format: PDF, Mobi View: 3197
Many of our thoughts and decisions occur without us being conscious of them taking place; connectionism attempts to reveal the internal hidden dynamics that drive the thoughts and actions of both individuals and groups. Connectionist modeling is a radically innovative approach to theorising in psychology, and more recently in the field of social psychology. The connectionist perspective interprets human cognition as a dynamic and adaptive system that learns from its own direct experiences or through indirect communication from others. Social Connectionism offers an overview of the most recent theoretical developments of connectionist models in social psychology. The volume is divided into four sections, beginning with an introduction and overview of social connectionism. This is followed by chapters on causal attribution, person and group impression formation, and attitudes. Each chapter is followed by simulation exercises that can be carried out using the FIT simulation program; these guided exercises allow the reader to reproduce published results. Social Connectionism will be invaluable to graduate students and researchers primarily in the field of social psychology, but also in cognitive psychology and connectionist modeling.
Author: Philip T. Quinlan Publisher: Taylor & Francis ISBN: 9781841692685 Size: 26.52 MB Format: PDF, Kindle View: 719
Connectionist Models of Development is an edited collection of essays on the current work concerning connectionist or neural network models of human development. The brain comprises millions of nerve cells that share myriad connections, and this book looks at how human development in these systems is typically characterised as adaptive changes to the strengths of these connections. The traditional accounts of connectionist learning, based on adaptive changes to weighted connections, are explored alongside the dynamic accounts in which networks generate their own structures as learning proceeds. Unlike most connectionist accounts of psychological processes which deal with the fully-mature system, this text brings to the fore a discussion of developmental processes. To investigate human cognitive and perceptual development, connectionist models of learning and representation are adopted alongside various aspects of language and knowledge acquisition. There are sections on artificial intelligence and how computer programs have been designed to mimic the development processes, as well as chapters which describe what is currently known about how real brains develop. This book is a much-needed addition to the existing literature on connectionist development as it includes up-to-date examples of research on current controversies in the field as well as new features such as genetic connectionism and biological theories of the brain. It will be invaluable to academic researchers, post-graduates and undergraduates in developmental psychology and those researching connectionist/neural networks as well as those in related fields such as psycholinguistics.
Author: Richard P. Cooper With Contributi Publisher: Psychology Press ISBN: 1135646813 Size: 54.64 MB Format: PDF, ePub View: 2697
This book is a practical guide to building computational models of high-level cognitive processes and systems. High-level processes are those central cognitive processes involved in thinking, reasoning, planning, and so on. These processes appear to share representational and processing requirements, and it is for this reason that they are considered together in this text. The book is divided into three parts. Part I considers foundational and background issues. Part II provides a series of case studies spanning a range of cognitive domains. Part III reflects upon issues raised by the case studies. Teachers of cognitive modeling may use material from Part I to structure lectures and practical sessions, with chapters in Part II forming the basis of in-depth student projects. All models discussed in this book are developed within the COGENT environments. COGENT provides a graphical interface in which models may be sketched as "box and arrow" diagrams and is both a useful teaching tool and a productive research tool. As such, this book is designed to be of use to both students of cognitive modeling and active researchers. For students, the book provides essential background material plus an extensive set of example models, exercises and project material. Researchers of both symbolic and connectionist persuasions will find the book of interest for its approach to cognitive modeling, which emphasizes methodological issues. They will also find that the COGENT environment itself has much to offer.
Author: R. Harald Baayen Publisher: Walter de Gruyter ISBN: 9783110178920 Size: 71.49 MB Format: PDF, Mobi View: 4741
"This volume brings together a series of studies of morphological processing in Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Romance (French, Italian), and Slavic (Polish, Serbian) languages. The question of how morphologically complex words are organized and processed in the mental lexicon is addressed from different theoretical perspectives (single and dual route models), for different modalities (auditory and visual comprehension, writing), and for language development. Experimental work, as well as computational and statistical modeling are reported. Thus, the volume provides a useful overview of the range of issues currently attracting research at the intersection of morphology and psycholinguistics."