L'histoire de la litterature chretienne, jusqu'au milieu du IVe siecle, accorde une place de choix aux apologies du christianisme. Nee du desir de defendre l'Eglise calomniee et persecutee, elle retinrent, au IIe siecle, l'attention de presque tous les ecrivains chretiens; elle presentaient alors un caractere juridique, populaire et faiblement doctrinal. Le gros de notre effort portera sur la recherche des orientations maitresses des apologistes chretiens. Ces orientations se concretiseront pour nous dans la reponse aux trois questions suivantes: A qui s'adresse l'apologiste? Quels buts se propose-t-il d'atteindre? Quel genre d'arguments utilise-t-il? En conclusion, nous tenterons de degager certaines orientations generales de l'apologetiue chretienne pendant cette periode de 270 a 361. Pour tous les chapitres consacres a l'etude des oeuvres apologetiques, nous reproduirons en notes la plupart des passages grecs et latins qu'on peut lire. Dans le texte, en traduction ou en paraphrase
This study positions Paracelsian alchemy, medicine and medical physiology within the apocalyptic discourse of the Protestant Reformation. Specific attention is paid to alchemical illustrations of ritual sacrifice, death and resurrection.
Author: Sir G. R. Elton Publisher: Pickle Partners Publishing ISBN: 1787200558 Size: 76.31 MB Format: PDF, Mobi View: 3637
A classic account of the Reformation, revealing the issues and preoccupations which seemed central to the age and portraying its leading figures with vigour and realism. The book is an analysis of the religious, economic, cultural and political history of Europe during the period of the Reformation. Author G. R. Elton examines the history of the period through the interrelationships between different forces in Europe at the time, such as the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, the Papacy, reformers such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, Martin Bucer and Zwingli, and explores the resultant Counter-Reformation and the beginnings of European colonisation of other parts of the world such as South America. Its central focus is upon the conflict between Luther and Charles V. “A masterly survey by a fine historian. He has gone to great pains to understand and do justice to the theological side, and if political history is still his strength there is no doubt that this paperback in scholarship, perspective and information far outweighs in value and importance most of the hard-bound studies of the 16th century in the last fifty years.”—E. GORDON RUPP “It is extremely pleasant to welcome a new History of Europe series in which the inaugural volume is of such high merit. Dr. Elton sets himself a difficult task; the result is a book written with the bold, subtle, assured pen of an accomplished scholar.”—JOEL HURSTFIELD “Not since Ranke has any historian described the religious and political history of Central Europe during the Reformation with as much insight and authority.”—H. G. KOENIGSBERGER, History (London) “Dr. Elton has put all students in his debt by providing an up-to-date and highly readable account of the ecclesiastical, political, and social history of Europe during the vital years 1517 to 1559...This book can be unreservedly commended.”—C. W. DUGMORE, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History
Author: Charles A. Frazee Publisher: Cambridge University Press ISBN: 9780521027007 Size: 10.21 MB Format: PDF, Mobi View: 6245
This book surveys the relations between Catholics outside and inside the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923. After the fall of Constantinople the only large Latin Catholic group to be incorporated into the sultan's domain were the Genoese who lived in Galata, across the Golden Horn from the Byzantine capital. Over the next few decades Turkish armies pushed into the Balkans, overrunning the Catholic population of Albania, Bosnia and Hungary. In the Orient, the sixteenth century saw the Maronites of Lebanon, the Latins of Palestine and most of the Greek islands, which once held Latin Catholic communities, come under Turkish rule. Papal response to the loss of these communities was initially a call to the crusade, but response from West European monarchs was disappointing. Their concerns were closer to home. French interest, however, lay in an alliance with the Turks against the Habsburgs. As a bonus, the Catholics of the Ottoman world received a protector at the Porte in the person of the French ambassador. The book traces the subsequent history of the Latin Catholics and each of the Eastern Catholic churches in the Ottoman Empire until its dissolution in 1923.